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How Does the MCU of Drone Work

  2020-05-22

introduce: Drones are unmanned aircraft operated by radio-controlled devices and self-contained programmed controls, or operated fully or intermittently autonomously by onboard computers. Drones are widely used in aerial photography, agriculture, plant protect

Drones are unmanned aircraft operated by radio-controlled devices and self-contained programmed controls, or operated fully or intermittently autonomously by onboard computers. Drones are widely used in aerial photography, agriculture, plant protection, micro-selfies, express delivery, disaster relief, wildlife observation, infectious disease monitoring, surveying and mapping, news reporting, power inspection, disaster relief, film and television shooting, making romance and other fields.

drone is composed of aircraft body, flight control system, data link system, launch and recovery system and power supply system. Flight management and control system, equivalent to the "heart" part of the drone system, has an important impact on the stability, reliability, accuracy and real-time data transmission of the drone, and plays a decisive role in its flight performance. The core of the drone body is the aircraft controller -- master MCU.

MCU is also called the single chip microcomputer, is the frequency of the CPU and specification to do appropriate to shrink, and the memory, counter, Timer, A/D conversion, USB, UART, PLC, DMA and other peripheral interfaces, even the LCD driver circuit are integrated on A single chip, form the computer chip level, do different combination control for different applications. The main control MCU of drone plays an important role in drone flight system.

With vertical movement, the drone uses rotors to move forward and stop. The relativity of the force means that when the rotor pushes the air, the air pushes the rotor in the opposite direction. This is the basic principle that drones can go up and down. In turn, the faster the rotor spins, the greater the lift, and vice versa.

To turn the drone to the right, you need to reduce the angular speed of rotor. But while the loss of thrust from rotor can cause the drone to change direction, the upward force is not equal to the downward force of gravity at the same time, so the drone will fall.

Drones are symmetrical. The same applies to lateral motion. A four-wheel drone is like a car with a front on each side, so how to move forward also explains how to move backwards or sideways.


Drone MCU is the core of the flight control subsystem, and the flight control system is the core system for drone to complete the whole flight process, such as take-off, air flight, mission execution and return recovery, etc. Flight control is to drone what the pilot is to man-machine, which we consider to be one of the core technologies of drone. Flight control generally consists of three parts: sensor, onboard computer and servo actuator equipment. Its functions mainly include drone attitude stabilization and control, drone mission equipment management and emergency control. In addition to the drone MCU, the drone also needs gyroscope, accelerometer, geomagnetic induction, air pressure sensor, ultrasonic sensor, optical flow sensor, GPS module and so on to help each other to complete the flight.

The IMU senses the vehicle's attitude in the air and sends the data to the master processor, MCU. The MCU of the master control processor will control the stable operation of the aircraft through the flight algorithm according to the user's operating instructions and IMU data. Due to the large amount of data to calculate and the need for real-time control, the performance of MCU also determines whether the aircraft can fly stable and flexible enough


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