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From CJ-5 to L15: Cultural Nanchang City, Chinese Trainer Aircraft


introduce: On July 3, 1954, my country's first domestically-made aircraft and the first domestically-made primary trainer aircraft, the CJ-5, was assembled and successfully flown at the Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Plant. Upon hearing the news, Ch

On July 3, 1954, my country's first domestically-made aircraft and the first domestically-made primary trainer aircraft, the CJ-5, was assembled and successfully flown at the Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Plant.
Upon hearing the news, Chairman Mao Zedong personally signed a letter of commendation. He pointed out: "This is a good start in establishing my country's aircraft manufacturing industry and strengthening national defense." On October 18 of the same year, at the first meeting of the National Defense Committee, Chairman Mao once again talked about this matter. He said: "Since Pangu created the world, the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors to the present, this is a world-shaking event, although it is only a trainer aircraft." In October of the same year, the aircraft was officially delivered to the Air Force.
Nanchang is a famous cultural city, where literati and poets have always gathered, and famous works and sentences have frequently appeared. Such a bookish city seems to be naturally suitable for producing "air teachers". That is, from the flapping of wings 70 years ago, the city of Nanchang has forged an indissoluble bond with trainer aircraft.
The generations of domestically-made trainer aircraft born in Nanchang, like the endless river water, nourish and shape generations of "new aviation talents" who are as vigorous as river grass and river flowers.
The loom is born, and it should be immortal
When talking about Nanchang City, we can't avoid Tengwang Pavilion, and when talking about Tengwang Pavilion, we can't avoid the world-famous "Tengwang Pavilion Preface".
According to legend, Yan Boyu, who was the governor of Hongzhou at that time, invited literati and scholars to hold a literary meeting after rebuilding Tengwang Pavilion. His original intention was to let his son-in-law show his literary talent. Therefore, when Governor Yan asked people to take out paper and pen, pretending to ask people to write a preface for this grand event, everyone refused to write, only Wang Bo, a young junior, did not refuse, and wrote.
Seeing this, Governor Yan immediately left with a wave of his sleeves, turned into the tent, and asked the waiter to see what Wang Bo wrote and report to him. When he heard that the first sentence of Wang Bo's opening was "Nanchang Old County, Hongdu New Mansion", he said disdainfully: It's just a cliché. After a while, when he heard "Stars divide the wings and the earth connects to the ridges", he could only mutter in silence. When he heard "The setting sun and the solitary wild goose fly together, and the autumn water and the sky are the same color", he had to admire: "This is a true genius, and he will be immortal!"
It can be seen that Nanchang has been a city that disdains "clichés" and advocates innovation since ancient times.
The CJ-5, which was modeled after the Soviet Yak-18 trainer aircraft, made a good start for Chinese trainer aircraft in Nanchang, but by the end of the 1950s, with a large number of fighters using front three-point landing gears entering service, the CJ-5 with rear three-point landing gear seemed to be somewhat incompatible with teaching needs. Therefore, the CJ-6, which replaced the CJ-5, was put on the agenda.
In December 1957, the Fourth Bureau of the Ministry of Machinery of my country and the Air Force jointly approved the design task book of the CJ-6 aircraft. Initially, the overall design of the CJ-6 was carried out in the Shenyang Aircraft First Design Office (i.e., the Shenyang Institute of Aviation Industry). In 1958, the Fourth Bureau of the Ministry of Machinery transferred the development of the CJ-6 aircraft to the then Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Plant (i.e. Aviation Industry Hongdu) considering that the Shenyang Aircraft Manufacturing Plant (i.e. Aviation Industry Shenfei) was busy producing the J-5 aircraft and preparing to trial-produce the J-1 jet trainer.
Wooden model of the preliminary design of the CJ-6.
Thus, the domestic primary trainer aircraft fell into Nanchang again. The CJ-6 made its first flight on July 27, 1958 and was finalized in January 1962.
The CJ-6 is the first aircraft designed and mass-produced by my country. Its wings in the blue sky also indicate that the aviation industry of New China has developed from repairing and imitating aircraft to a new stage of self-designing and manufacturing aircraft.
In 1979, the CJ-6 won the National Quality Gold Medal, the first and so far the only model to win this award in my country.
Because of its excellent flight performance and handling quality, more than 3,000 CJ-6s have been produced and delivered. It is the "first love" of several generations of Chinese pilots and is also the longest-serving model in the current Chinese Air Force equipment.
CJ-6 performed a flight show at the Air Force Aviation Open Event.
Mountains are connected with mountains and play the song of friendship together
"Hongya Danjing" above the Wujingyuan stream is the oldest scenic spot in Nanchang. The cliffs are steep and the waterfalls come from the north. The well below is unfathomable. According to legend, "Hongya Danjing" is the place where Linglun, the music official of Huangdi, practiced. According to legend, Linglun simulated the sound of the phoenix in nature, 0ed bamboo tubes with symmetrical inner cavity and cavity wall growth, and made twelve musical notes, which is called the ancestor of Chinese music.
Nanchang City's nicknames Hongdu, Hongzhou, and Hongcheng are derived Hongya.
In 1982, the Ministry of Aviation Industry requested to resume the development of jet trainer aircraft. The then Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Plant (i.e. Aviation Industry Hongdu) set up a special group for this purpose and named it Jiao 8 (then called L8), but the project was shelved for a time because the subsequent funds could not be guaranteed. Coincidentally, because the American trainer aircraft used by Pakistan at that time had expired and needed to be replaced with a new aircraft, it expressed its intention to cooperate with China to develop trainer aircraft. The two countries hit it off and signed the "China-Pakistan Cooperation in the Development of a New Generation of Trainer Aircraft General Agreement" on August 21, 1986.
In May 1987, officials from the Pakistani Ministry of Defense visited the Hongdu Aircraft Manufacturing Company, and then the two sides signed an agreement to clearly launch the L8 project in June 1987. Later, in order to commemorate this cooperation, Pakistani President Zia-ul-Haq changed L8 to K8 by taking the English initials K, which represents the mountain of friendship between China and Pakistan, KLAWQUELEN (Karakoram Mountains).
K8 aircraft prototype.
From the design point of view, the K8 trainer aircraft is small in size and has very little inertia. It can flexibly perform maneuvers such as turns and turns. It has good flight quality, excellent maneuverability, and gentle stall characteristics. It can undertake all flight training subjects for flight trainees, including take-off and landing, navigation, formation, night flight, instrument, weapon training, and simple and complex stunts, and has a certain close support combat capability.
The K8E production line was exported to Egypt, creating a precedent for the export of complete aircraft production lines in my country.
On November 21, 1990, the K8 trainer aircraft successfully made its first flight.
The successful development of the K8 is a new era fruit of the Chinese trainer aircraft tree under the city of Nanchang. The roar of the engine coming from the Hongya Danjing pioneered the introduction of foreign capital into the development of Chinese aviation products, opened up routes for domestically developed aircraft to fly abroad, and opened up the strategy of domestic jet trainer aircraft to enter the international market.
In addition to equipping the Chinese and Pakistani armies, K8 has exported more than 300 aircraft to more than 10 countries including Egypt, Namibia, and Zambia. It not only pioneered the export of complete sets of technology for China's aviation industry, but also became the model with the most foreign exchange earned by my country's aviation products.
A song of friendship from the hometown of Linglun, the "ancestor of music", floated from Hongya Danjing to Karakoram, and the two mountains became connected from then on. This song has wings, flying over the snowy plateau, over the South Asian subcontinent, and all over the world.
New willows have formed a row in front of the pavilion
China's trainer aircraft industry has never stopped moving forward.
At the end of the 20th century, the concept of multi-purpose advanced trainer aircraft that uses third-generation fighter technology to train pilots for third-generation fighters and serve as light fighters and light attack aircraft in wartime began to sweep the world. In China, with the service of new generation fighters such as J-10 and J-11, the original "old trainers" have been struggling to teach "new apprentices". The People's Army urgently needs a new advanced trainer. In this case, the new advanced trainer L15 "Falcon" was successfully launched at the turn of the century and made its first flight on March 13, 2006.
Compared with the previous "old countryman + predecessor" trainer aircraft, what advantages does L15 have?
First of all, from the aerodynamic layout, L15 adopts a large wing and wing-body fusion layout, which is a typical aerodynamic layout feature of the third-generation aircraft, which effectively improves its lift coefficient and improves the high angle of attack characteristics of the aircraft. L15 is also equipped with two turbofan engines with full authority digital control function, so that when one engine fails suddenly, it can rely on another engine to return safely, which not only improves the safety factor, but also reduces the psychological pressure of flight trainees, and the surging power also allows L15 to easily fly at supersonic speed. In addition, L15 uses a three-axis four-redundant digital fly-by-wire control system, which allows it to flexibly control the horizontal tail, ailerons, rudder and leading edge flaps. L15 also has dual-redundant analog backup, which makes its flight performance and control quality win the praise of many flight trainees and instructors.
Today, L15 has been in its first flight for 18 years and has "grown up". In addition to the Zhuhai Air Show, it has also brought the water color and sunset glow of Nanchang to major international air shows such as the Paris Air Show, Farnborough Air Show, Moscow Air Show, and Dubai Air Show, and has been successfully exported. This reminds people of the poem written by Wen Tianxiang, a famous minister of the Southern Song Dynasty, in Nanchang Tengwang Pavilion: Looking back at the ten years of wandering, the new willows in front of the pavilion have formed a row.Synthetic Aperture Radar
In Wen Tianxiang's eyes, the new willows planted in front of Tengwang Pavilion ten years ago have grown luxuriantly and swaying in rows. He believes that these trees will become useful materials in the future.
L15 participated in the military parade to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China
Over the years, Chinese trainer aircraft have spent seven decades planting countless "flying seedlings" under the city of Nanchang. Seventy years have passed, and now "new willows have formed a row in front of the pavilion." Looking to the future, there will be more aviation "pillars" that will thrive in this "abundant land" and go to the world!

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